# Marimekko Charts – Data Visualization

MARIMEKKO CHARTS

What is Marimekko Chart? A Marimekko chart is a two-dimensional 100% chart, in which the width of a column is proportional to the total of the column’s values. Data input is similar to a 100% chart, with data represented as either absolute values or percentages of a given total.

Marimekko charts are widely adopted in Marketing for example to analyze customer segmentation and market segmentation.

This graph encodes two quantitative variables: one using the height and one using the width of the bars. For example – By attending to the heights of each bar segment, we can see what percentage of each company’s total sales were handled by each of the three sales channels. By attending to the widths of the bars, we can see the relative magnitudes of each company’s total sales. Each company’s sales in each individual channel is encoded through the areas of the rectangles (that is, the individual bar segments).

For instance, comparisons between Reebok’s U.S. sales and Adidas’ International sales can be made by comparing the areas of the two rectangles that represent them.

Caution?

The following points need to be kept in mind while desiging Marimekko charts

– Bars should be of the same heights

– Values in the columns to be preset in the percentage format

– Viewing graph as a whole is fine & reveals a lot of insights, but when we want to make comparisons between individual specific boxes, that is generally difficult.

– Marimekko graphs suffer from a problem that plagues any stacked bar graph: It is difficult to accurately make comparisons of the width or height of boxes that are not arranged next to one another along a common baseline.

Industry Specific Example?

– Generally used for marketing analysis all competitors in a particular market segment and individual share of competitors in each of the market segments. For ex – market share of three mobile handset makers (Nokia, Samsung, Motorola) in three segments (feature phone, smart phone, basic phone) and the share of each segment in the market itself using Marimekko charts

# Pie Chart – Data Visualization

PIE CHART

What is Pie Chart? A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors, illustrating proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents. When angles are measured with 1 turn as unit then a number of percent is identified with the same number of centiturns. Together, the sectors create a full disk. It is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced. The size of the sectors are calculated by converting between percentage and degrees or by the use of a percentage protractor. The earliest known pie chart is generally credited to William Playfair’s Statistical Breviary of 1801.

When to use :

Its recommended to be used when a piece is to be compared with respect to the total.

Pie charts work particularly well when the slices represent 25 to 50% of the data, but in general, other plots such as the bar chart or the dot plot, or non-graphical methods such as tables, may be more adapted for representing certain information.

Do the parts make up a meaningful whole? If not, use a different chart. Only use a pie  chart if you can define the entire set in a way that makes sense to the viewer.

Are the parts mutually exclusive? If there is overlap between the parts, use a different chart.

Difficult to compare individual pieces

Do you want to compare the parts to each other or the parts to the whole? If the main purpose is to compare between the parts, use a different chart. The main purpose of the pie chart is to show part-whole relationships.

How many parts do you have? If there are more than five to seven, use a different chart. Pie charts with lots of slices (or slices of very different size) are hard to read.

– While designing pie chart, make sure that slices are mutually exclusive; by definition, they cannot overlap. The data therefore must not only sum up to a meaningful whole, but the values need to be categorized in such a way that they are not counted several times.

Research suggests that we look at the angle in the center, essentially reducing the chart to just the crossing lines there. We are not very good at measuring angles, but we recognize 90 and 180 degree angles with very high precision. Slices that cover half or a quarter of the circle will therefore stand out. Others can be compared with some success, but reading actual numbers from a pie chart is next to impossible.

Industry specific examples of Pie Chart Usage :-

If a company has five divisions, and the pie chart shows profits per division, the sum of all the slices/divisions is the total profits of the company.

# Pareto Chart – Data Visualization

PARETO CHART

What is Pareto Chart? Pareto chart is a data visualization tool which contains both bars & line graphs. In this, individual values are represented in decreasing order by bars & the cumulative total is represented by the line. Its named after Vilfred Pareto, an Italian economist and sociologist who conducted a study in Europe in the early 1900s on wealth and poverty. He found that wealth was concentrated in the hands of the few and poverty in the hands of the many. The principle is based on the unequal distribution of things in the universe.

Pareto Chart Example

When to use : Whenever we are having a number of factors, then pareto chart is used to highlight the relative importance (since the bar graphs are also arranged in decreasing order).

See the typical use cases highlighted below

– Used in customer care to show the most coomon customer dis-satisfaction factors

– Can be used in quality control to show common source of defects

The Pareto chart is generally used to you focus your improvement efforts on those issues that: 1.) Cost the most or 2.) Pose the highest risk / liability or 3.) those areas that occur the most often.

Dos & Donts :

If used properly, pareto chart can help a lot in understanding the key factors. The below mentioned factors are to be kept in mind & if used in conjuction, can provide a lot of actionable insight

a. Sub division :- It means, lets say at a customer care post using pareto they have found out that from a specific location maximum complaints are coming. Now, ideally they should further design a pareto for that specific location to get more insights (like in some cases there might be some complaints from a specific part of location because of some miscellaneous factor etc)

b. Multi-perspective analysis :- We should also do a multi-perspective analysis for ideal insights. For examples – if we take above case, not only they should do an analysis location wise but also reason wise & service wise etc. This might give them specific reasons for specific locations & hence counter measure can be taken to sort out the matter.

c. Repeast Analysis :- This depends on case to case or industry to industry basis, but based on their true knowledge & how they think the data dynamics are changing, the pareto charts should be updated & redesigned.

This is generally know as first level pareto analysis, second level pareto analysis (this is pareto analysis of the first bar of first pareto analysis) & third level pareto analysis (this is pareto analysis of the first bar of second pareto analysis)

Industry specific examples of Pareto Chart Usage :-

Below mentioned are some of the real world example usages of Pareto chart usage in industries & business organizations for data visualizations & analysis

• Marketing – Where are the majority of my advertising dollars going? Which channels produce the most sales leads?
• Healthcare – What types of infections are the most prevalent? What procedures are associated with the majority of return hospital visits?
• Sales – Does a small percentage of customers account for a large percentage of revenue? If so, which ones?
• Customer Service – How can I improve customer satisfaction? What do customers complain about the most?
• Manufacturing – What defect types are most prevalent & key to improving an inspection process etc

# Importance of Business Intelligence in Healthcare

To turn any business establishment profitable, the managers & the work force is highly reliant on decisions & those decisions are dependent on the kind of information available. This is where Business Intelligence comes into picture

Business Intelligence (BI) refers to technologies, applications and practices for the collection, integration, analysis, and presentation of business information and also sometimes to the information itself. The purpose of BI is to support better business decision-making.

BI systems provide historical, current, and predictive views of business operations, most often using data that has been gathered into a data warehouse or a data mart and occasionally working from operational data. Software elements that make up the BI system support reporting, interactive “slice-and-dice” pivot-table analyses, visualization, and statistical data mining.

Importance of BI in healthcare Industry :-

Today, healthcare establishments are also generating a lot of data (Data in healthcare – e.g., encounters, labs, pharmacy, membership, finance, claims, billing, CRM, EMR, HMS, etc). Though, they have lot of data, but information is very less.

There are three broad categories of data that any healthcare organization is interested in : financial, operational & clinical. Healthcare organizations must apply business intelligence to organize clinical, business and operational data for decision-making purposes. This data is used to support programs like disease management, outcomes management, clinical performance and process improvement, cost and waste reduction, quality accreditation and predictive analytics.

Forward-thinking healthcare organizations realize that data—and, thus, business intelligence (BI)—is at the center of informed and precise decision-making that will improve patient and service outcomes in addition to ensuring their organizations’ future, thus, many leading hospitals have already adopted BI

1. Harvard Medical School, St. Jude Children’s Research, CIBA, & Mutual of Omaha
2. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida
3. Columbus Children’s Hospital
4. St. Joseph Medical Center & St. Joseph’s Hospital
5. International Federation of Red Cross & Crescent
6. St. Luke’s Medical Clinic, Houston Infectious
7. Diseases Associated
8. Denver Health and Hospital Authority (BI is especially crucial to “avoid both waste and having patients fall between the cracks)
9. Lincolnshire Partnership Foundation Trust (plunged into BI because of a specific need to better analyze the efficiency of its service lines)
10. Hartford Hospital
11. Nemours
12. Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto
13. University Health Network

Benefits of using Business Intelligence in a healthcare establishment :-

a. Consolidation & protection of data since there would be a single point access of data Better protection of patient data is also possible by providing access to data only to those with appropriate access levels.

b. Improved Efficiency :- Since any type of information & report, whichever is required at any time. This will enable better decision making and improved efficiency

c. Increased revenue & reduce costs :- BI makes it possible possible to eliminate waste and mine data stores to examine and recoup denied claims in healthcare organizations. Costs of: healthcare professionals, lab equipment and consumables, pharmaceuticals/ medical material, treatment per diagnosis and cost per type of medical intervention (e.g. specific medical operation) can be reduced as well

d. Improved Margins :- BI (BI/balanced scorecard program) helps to improve gross margins of healthcare organizations.

e. Improved patients satisfaction by using BI and analytic tools.

f. Improved Patient Treatment & Care :- Through the use of BI, healthcare professionals have easy access to patient’s data and they can create a variety of classifications/reports based on demographic data, sex, age, and so on. Thanks to the evidence based medicine and capture of medical history of the patient doctors can accurate diagnosis and apply efficient treatment with reduction of risks during treatment (e.g. related to on time admittance, the use of medicine, biomedical equipment, blood transfusions). Timely and effective clinical decisions are better facilitated by increasing the potential of BI.

g. Reduction of medical errors and improved patients safety. It could be reached by supporting medical research and data treatment. BI systems can support a larger Healthcare system, by the exchange of medical information on a patient. Improved decision-making in the area of comprehensive health care policy by the authorities of the organization of the health sector. It can be reached with monitoring the performance of doctors, departments and medical material requirements. Multiple groups or individuals can be put together by emphasizing the analysis and accurate data, which brings them closer to the point of service in order to enhance decision making & make data actionable.

h. Better data management helps in better patient treatment in terms of timely admittance, diagnosis and risk in casualty.

i. Some other benefits includes supply cost optimization, fraud detection

Main KPIs & Performance Indicators

The main KPIs which can be used to be displayed via reports & dashboards are mentioned below.

Clinical Data KPI

Healthcare establishment can improve clinical quality and resource utilization by effectively monitoring and measuring clinical performance and outcomes data. By delivering analysis from multiple sources at once, BI enables organizations to track large amounts of information stemming from clinical activities and identify the most efficient practices. BI helps providers identify trends and anomalies, and analyze risk in clinical care. With a lot of stakeholders involved like doctors, diagnostic centers, pharmacy etc all of them cant function as independent silos. With BI, all constituents can work from the same data over a secure extranet with information personalized based on security credentials. BI’s unique centralized administration and role-based security assures that healthcare providers have security measures at every layer of the architecture. With secure, essential clinical information, individual practitioners can diagnose and prescribe more quickly and provide top quality care with greater peace of mind.

The different types of reports permissible are

 Avg cost per case Clinical outcomes Cost & clinical data Cost affectiveness Disease management In-patient admission rates Investment in research programs No of procedures vs benchmarks Patient safety & staffing Performance reporting Population risk Resource cosumption vs benchmark Response time Treatment

Patient Care KPI

Healthcare providers want to offer the highest-quality patient care in the most efficient way possible with improved patient access to care. BI enables the right people to access the right information at the right time, delivering a single platform to healthcare providers for sharing information with patients for better decision-making and connecting patients across hospital, nursing home, physician office, and community social support settings. By providing easy, secure access to crucial information, BI supports safe care delivery, assists clinicians in evidence-based clinical decision-making, and facilitates seamless care coordination across clinical settings. Providers use BI to monitor patient diagnoses and use of healthcare services in order to improve patient care, reduce wait times, and administer more effective treatments.

 Clinical Outcomes Day to next appointment Dispatch request & monitoring Patient functionality Patients wait time in admission Patients wait time in pharmacy Service complaints Service Level Agreement reporting Services performed Timeliness of service

Financial KPI

Healthcare organizations need visibility into the full scope of their financial operations. BI provides full transparency, analysis, and delivery of financial and operational data. BI enables healthcare providers to drill from reports into detailed analyses of costs and revenues, view data underlying cash flow statements, and compare planned versus actual income and margin. BI’s analytical capabilities allow providers to analyze current care practice patterns to identify unnecessary or under-utilized services, execute cash flow analysis, forecast collections, and monitor underwriting requirements. In addition, BI enables healthcare organizations to meet statutory reporting requirements and ensure accountability from financial analysts to business unit management, executives, and directors.

 Accounts payable Accounts receivable Accrued expenses Assets in current vs prior period Bad debt as % of net revenue Budget variance analysis Capital expenditure growth rate Cash & equivalents Cash collected vs target Cash on hand Current asset turnover Current Ratio Customer Plan migration Net assets Net income Operating margin % of capital expenses % of cash flow to total debt % of cash flow to total liabilities % of charitable revenue % of debt to capitalization % of out patient revenue

Quality & Performance KPI

Providing safe, quality care is a top priority for healthcare organizations. BI allows providers to improve performance by leveraging evidence-based performance data, tracking variations in quality, providing patient dashboards, setting alerts, and checking drug interactions. Providers can use BI to monitor the quality of their care according to the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) standards established by the National Committee for Quality Assurance to allow for performance comparisons across quality, patient access, patient satisfaction, utilization, and financials. Additionally, Dashboard can be used for improving quality at healthcare organizations, which empowers managers to make more timely decisions and participate in on-the-spot quality improvements. BI allows providers to identify the presence or absence of interventions recommended by evidence based medicine.

 Dose Frequency of attacks Handling costs Avg length of stay for patients Length of visit with nurse practitioner Length of visit with physician Medication error Monthly drug cost % of follow ups No of emergency room visits No of hospitalizations No of patients admitted No of patients referred outside No of patients with infections No of patients with vaccinations No of physicians visit Packaging cost Patients satisfaction

Marketing KPIs:-

With a No. of hospitals, clinics & nursing centers, healthcare providers must place a greater focus on their marketing efforts to stay competitive. BI helps analyze the success of marketing efforts designed to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of their products and services, create an increased feeling of overall wellness, and reduce workplace absenteeism. BI also allow providers to determine the most cost-effective marketing techniques by tracking campaign costs against budget, calculating the return on investment for campaigns, and comparing performance against goals. In addition, BI allows healthcare providers to use dashboards to show which products and services are profitable in specific patient segments and measure how their marketing efforts and corporate communications alter brand perception and affect brand performance.

 Acquisition Advertising budget per procedure Avg visit length to website Brand Management Churn Analysis Customer Profitability Customer Segmentation Demographic Analysis Loyalty Program Market Share by Business Marketing Focus group scores No of visit to website Patient satisfaction Physician practices Preference & permission bundling Retention

Above mentioned are some of the commonly used KPIs. Keeping a tab on them via selecting a proper Business Intelligence tool & correct implementation, can surely help them to rise above the competition & deliver a world class service to the patients.

For any query regarding Business Intelligence implementation, plz mail [email protected]

Nikhilesh

+91-7893947676

# Dashboards & Designing a good Dashboard

A picture is worth a thousand words & when spoken in IT paradigm, a dashboard is worth thousands of GB of data.

A typical definition of dashboard is
“An easy to read, often single page, real-time user interface, showing a graphical presentation of the current status (snapshot) and historical trends of an organization’s key performance indicators (KPIs) to enable instantaneous and informed decisions to be made at a glance.” – source Wikipedia

The concept dashboard originated from automobile dashboard, where driver can look & get all the required information like speed, distance traveled, RPM etc.
Dashboards have became a very critical & important tool for not only CXO but also mid level managers & any other employee for that matter. A normal data will not make sense to any person, & dashboard is just the perfect tool to help a company & employee to make sense out of the humungous data & to draw insights from it. This data can be from multiple softwares like ERP, HRMS, CRM, web service etc. The key benefit which dashboards gives is

–  View performance information in a graphical format that enables the ability to quickly identify performance issues and study the root causes behind an anomaly.
–  View performance information in an organized format aligned around key goals and objectives.
–  Deliver more timely information by moving away from costly manually intensive    methods of integrating and disseminating information.
–  Dashboards helps in better decision making by reducing operational inefficiencies.
–  Improved bottom line by reducing cost
–  Rapid problem detection, escalation & resolving

A dashboard is not useful until & unless it is linked to the vision & mission of the company. It should be linked to historical data & provide insight. There should be a high level of interactivity in the dashboard, there should be alerts, hover information, drill down & drill through capabilities. Also, a dashboard has to reflect the right KPIs which are relevant to the specific industry & also specific department. In general, finance sales HR & manufacturing are the departments which are found to use dashboards the most in comparison to others.

Dashboards Deliverables Expected :- Generally, below are the most commonly expected deliverable which are supposed to be fulfilled by any dashboards
– Historical information to be present as well
– Information to be upto date
– Customized view according to the department & sector
– Access levels – Security to be implemented
– Mobile capabilities – In today’s world, with more & more of the workforce being on the move, its very essential that the dashboards can be accessed by even a mobile, ipad & tablets
– Interactivity- The dashboards should have high level of interactivity like drill down, drill through, hover capabilities

Designing a good Dashboard :- while designing a good dashboard, the following points have to be kept in mind

– Dashboard should be simple & communicate easily with an end user
– There should be the best use of data visualization techniques so that in one look, end user should comprehend what is happening
– Utmost care should be taken in order to ensure that the most important information is made to stand out as compared to others
– Those text should be put in dark which has to be highlighted (like problematic are or exceptionally good performance)
– Icons draw more attention & hence can be used optimally
– wherever & to whatever extent possible, clicking should provide more information of that specific KPI
– There should never be overdose of information, the visualization should never ever be cluttered. Maximum 4-5 frame information.
– As much as possible, the entire information should be present on a single page without scrolling
– There should be focus on actionable data & insights. Patters should be highlighted on a dashboard
– Exceptions have to be highlighted – Via size, shape, icon, color, boldness, italic, shades
– Most important info to be present on topleft & least one at bottom right in a dashboard
– Giving the chart name can eliminate the need for axis naming & hence can save space
– For showing trends, the height should be bigger than length
– Never show more than 3 time series charts in a single frame
– Dashboard background should be always very light in color
– Negative to positive values should always be in opposite or contrasting colors

A typical components of dashboard which are generally used are bar & charts, map, diagrams, grids, gauges, scorecards, pareto chart, balance scorecards, gauges & scales etc

– For comparison, columns are the best tools to be used